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Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary & Overview of Telecoms Fraud & Security Risks
2. International Revenue Share Fraud Threat & Solutions
3. Wholesaler Fraud Systems & the Protection of Retailer Carriers
4. SIM Box, SMS, & OTT Bypass Fraud: Threats & Solutions
5. Subscription Fraud, Credit & Identity Verification: Threats & Solutions
6. Insider, Sales & Dealer Fraud: Threats & Solutions
7. VoIP and Virtual Operator Threats & Solutions
8. Mobile Data Abuse, FAS & Mobile Money Fraud\: Threats & Solutions
9. Operator Strategies & Recommendations
10. The Fraud Management Solutions Market & Forecasts
11. Vendor Profiles
Chapter 1. Executive Summary & Overview of Telecoms
Fraud & Security Risks — 20 pages
A. Executive Summary
1. Introduction — Communications Advances vs. Fraud Risks
2. Telecom Fraud Management Solutions Market: The Big Picture
3. International Revenue Share Fraud & Premium Rate Fraud
4. Bypass Fraud
5. Credit/ID & Subscription Application Fraud
6. Other Fraud Solutions
B. The Fraud Threat
1. Convenience & Capabilities Open the Way for Fraud
2. Focus on the Most Important Threats
C. The Changing Face of the Fraudster
1. Fraudsters Shift from Hackers to Enterprise-Level Fraud
2. The Increasing Sophistication of Fraudsters, a Wholesaler Perspective
D. Fraud Convergence with Security and Other Risks
1. Identifying the Security Risks and Control Gaps
Perspective: Fraud, Security & the Internet of Hackable Things
— Mark Johnson, Independent Consultant (TRMG)
2. Convergence of Security, Fraud & Revenue Assurance
3. Security: From a Layered Onion to Clouds
4. Piecing Together Information from Diverse Communication Channels
5. The Writing of New International Laws
E. The State of Telecoms Risk Management
Perspective — Eric Priezkalns, Editor, Commsrisk
1. Are We Measuring the Right Risks?
2. Decisions By Committee or By Informed & Courageous Leadership?
3. Are Controls a Substitute for Real Influence Over Decisions?
4. Are Hammers and Nails Enough to Build the Risk House?
5. Beyond Controls: The Mindset that Prepares for All the Risks
Chapter 2. International Revenue Share Fraud:
Threat & Solutions — 18 pages
A. International Revenue Share Fraud
1. IRSF — A Short History of the Threat’s Evolution
2. Technology Advancements Led to More Fraud Attack Avenues
3. The Roaming Gateway to IRSF
4. The PBX Emerges as the Leading IRSF Gateway
5. The Process Flow of IRSF
6. Impact of IRSF on all-IP networks and LTE
7. IRSF Cases: Why They are Hard to Detect and Reconstruct
8. Wangiri as an Enabler of IRSF Fraud
9. Why the IRSF Remedy is not Refusing Payment
10. Industry Coordination & Local Legislation to Stop the Money Flow
New Fraudster Strategy: Be Patient & Fly Below
the FMS Radar of Detection — Steve Heap, IPsoft
B. Anti-Fraud Number Management Solutions to Stop IRSF
1. The Numbering Plan Strategy at Tata Communications
2. Crossing the Line Between Premium Information Services and Fraud
3. The Business of IRSF: How Fraudsters Advertise Themselves
4. About the Number Aggregators
5. The PRISM BlackList
6. Number Intelligence on High-Risk Ranges Including Unallocated Ranges
C. Counterfeit and Stolen Phones
1. A Fraud Problem Mobile Operators are Not Eager to Solve
2. A Solution for Managing the Problem of Counterfeit and Stolen Phones
D. Countries Targeted by IRSF Fraudsters
1. Why Certain Countries are IRSF Destinations
2. Short-Stopping Calls to the Pacific Islands
E. Stopping IRSF at the Enterprise PBX
1. The Mixed Blame for PBX-Generated IRSF
2. How Hackers Break into a PBX
3. The Changing of Passwords
4. The Network that Connects Hackers and Fraudsters
5. How Enterprise PBX Call Control Systems Stop the IRSF
6. The Downside of PBX Protection at the Enterprise
Chapter 3. Wholesaler Fraud Systems & the Protection
of Retailer Carriers — 13 pages
A. The Case for Wholesaler Protection of Retailers
1. A Lack of Education and Experience at Small Retailers
2. Why the Retail Operator is Vulnerable
3. What a Retail Operator can do if its Number Ranges are Blocked
Perspective: How Retailers should Negotiate with Wholesalers
— Jan Dingenouts, Independent Consultant
4. Cases Where Wholesalers Went Wrong by the Retailer
B. Wholesaler Sharing of Fraud Intelligence with Global Partners
1. FraudGuard, the Fraud Intelligence Collaboration Program at BICS
2. Wholesalers can Enable a Greater Level of Collaboration
C. Wholesaler Fraud Management Programs
1. The Arsenal of Tools for Fighting Fraud at Tata Communications
2. Protecting Wholesale Customers at Tata Communications
3. The Rigorous Process of Becoming a Supplier to Tata Communications
4. Identifying Suppliers Who are a Potential Fraud Risk
D. Wholesaler Automatic Blocking of Traffic
1. The Innovative FraudAlert System at iBasis
2. How the Automatic Blocking of Retailer Traffic Works
Chapter 4. SIM Box, SMS, & OTT Bypass Fraud:
Threats & Solutions — 25 pages
A. Bypass Fraud
1. The Variety of Bypass Methods
2. Bypass: An Opportunity for Arbitrage
B. SIM Box Bypass
1. SIM Box Fraud: Current State of the Fraud Issue
2. SIM Box Damage Assessment: It Goes Beyond Revenue Loss
3. The Extent of the SIM Box Problem and How Fraudster Deploy Them
4. Current Technology for Detecting and Block SIM Box
5. The SIM Server: Fresh Stealth Technology for the Fraudster
C. Test Call Generators
1. Test Call Generators — A Vital Weapon in the Fight Against SIM Box Fraud
2. Detecting Calling Card Issues
Perspective: Why Looking Inside the Fraudster’s Mind
is the Key to Blocking Bypass — Xavier Lesage, CEO, Araxxe
3. Working to Help Law Enforcement Capture SIM Boxes
D. Electronic Warfare: New Weapons to Stop SIM Box Fraud
1. Electronic Warfare: Military Tactics Shift to the Telecom Scene.
2. Detecting the Protocol Signature of Fraudster SIM Boxes
Perspective: Blocking SIM Box Fraudsters Before They Generate
Traffic on the Network — Lex Wilkinson, CEO, LATRO Services
3. A Managed Service and Real-Time FMS for SIM Box Detection
4. OTT Bypass: A New and Growing Bypass Threat that TCGs Address
5. Details on How VIBER Bypass Occurs and How It»s Detected
E. Case Study in the Fight to Block SIM Box Fraud
1. The SIM Box Defense Struggle in Pakistan
2. The Clever Tactics of Fraudsters & SIM Sales Controls
F. Synchronizing FMS & TCG Systems
1. The Urgent Need for Coordinated Systems
2. Identifying Ghost Trunks Through TCG & FMS Coordination
G. SMS Bypass — Fraudulent A2P Messaging
1. A Tale of Two SMS Message Streams: One Declining, One Growing
2. The Attraction of A2P Messaging: A Vital Enterprises-to-Customer Comms Link
3. How a SMS Bypass Blocking System Works
4. The Volume of SMS Fraud Traffic Being Experienced Operators
5. How the SMS Fraud Management Vendor Gets Paid
6. SIM Boxes are Used to Facilitate SMS Fraud
7. Sending Reduced Quality of A2P Traffic: Another Form of Fraud
Chapter 5. Subscription Fraud, Credit, and Identity
Verification: Threats & Solutions — 20 pages
A. Credit Bureaus & Credit Technologies
1. The Curse of Greater Convenience: Higher Credit Risk
2. The Mission of the Credit Bureau
3. Techniques for Establishing Identity
4. The Practice of Credit Muling
5. The Role of Device Intelligence in Identity Checks
6. A Paradigm Shift in Identity Verification: Assuming the Negative
7. Dynamic Credit Rules & Combined Rules
B. Telecom Industry Subscription Fraud Schemes
1. Why Fraudsters Can Make Money with Almost No Technical Edge
2. SIM Swapping: A Key Entry to Account Takeover
3. Attacking Existing Accounts
4. Phishing Using Either a Phone or Email
C. Advanced Subscription Fraud & Identity Solutions
1. The Shift from Rules Design to Adaptive Learning Systems in Fraud Control
2. Behavioral Learning in Stopping Subscription Fraud
3. Correlating a Network of Identities to Spot Fraud Rings
Perspective: The Power of Behavioral Learning Systems
— Shankar Palaniandy, CEO of FRS Labs
4. The Fuzzy Recognition of Identities
5. Voice Biometrics: Set to Play a Much Bigger Role
D. Cross Industry Fraud Checking
1. Leveraging Fraud & Identity Checks from Sources Outside Telecom
2. Why Many People Lack a Credit Bureau Score
3. Why Cross Industry Identity and Fraud Checks are Crucial
E. The Private Data Exchange in Fraud Intelligence
1. Why Data Privacy is Important to Enterprises Who Use Credit Bureaus
2. The Mission of a Private Data Exchange
3. Getting the Exchange of Data Conversation Started
4. Using a Privacy Exchange for Small Business & Credit Risk Assessment
5. Competing with Credit Bureaus
F. Bad Debt Collection
1. Customer Lifetime Value & Profitability Profiles
2. Leveraging Billing Controls & Collections Policies
Chapter 6. Insider, Sales & Dealer Fraud:
Threats & Solutions — 20 pages
A. Insider Fraud
1. The Quiet Fraud
2. The Chief Cause of Insider Fraud
3. The Cultural Aspects of Fraud
4. But What If the Culture Encourages Fraud?
5. The Broad Scope of Insider Fraud
6. Why Inside Fraudsters Get Caught
Perspective: Setting Up a Solid Anti-Fraud Culture
& Program — Mark Yelland, Independent Consultant
7. A Special Case: The IT Department Staff
8. Applying Credits to Customers
9. Watching Performance Indicators
10. Vulnerability in the Fraud & Revenue Assurance Departments
11. Vendor Solutions in Insider Fraud
12. Choosing the Right People to Fight Fraud
13. Establishing the Human Resource Procedures to Fight Fraud
14. Senior Managers: Role in Anti-Fraud Programs
15. Planning Your Anti-Fraud Strategy Upfront
B. A Candid & Anonymous Report from a Fraud Investigator
1. Very Different Skills Required to Detect Insider Fraud
2. Example of an Insider Fraud Case with Many Manual & Tedious Processes.
3. Can Big Data Really Help Me Investigate?
C. Insider Fraud in the Sales Process
1. Investigating Insider Fraud that Touches that Sales Process
2. An In-House Agent Case Study
D. Dealers Management and Commission Assurance
1. The Dealer Commission Monitoring Program at Vodafone Germany
2. Typical Dealer Problems
3. The Impact of Better Monitoring and Managing of Dealers
4. Determining what Standard Dealer Behavior Is
5. Dealer Management Software Used
6. Access to Dealer Management Reports
7. The Point of Sales System that Dealers Use
Chapter 7. VoIP and Virtual Operator Threats & Solutions — 15 pages
A. The Business of VoIP and OTT Providers
1. The Miraculous Growth of the VoIP Market
2. The Business of VoIP Providers
3. The Market Strategy of Global VoIP Players
4. The Relationship between VoIP Players & Wholesalers
B. Fraud Protecting OTT & VoIP Providers
1. Business Challenge of VoIP Provider: Making a Decent Margin
2. The Power of SIP Invite in IRSF Blocking
Perspective: The Simplicity of SIP Invite: Detecting Fraud
& Serving Enterprises Efficiently — Jim Dalton, CEO, TransNexus
3. Softswitch Companies are Starting to Offer Fraud Protection
C. ITSP Wholesalers Support the VoIP Players
1. The Key Role of the ITSP Wholesaler
2. The Fraud Protection by the ITSP Wholesaler
3. Innovative Approach to Real-time Protection — Calls in Progress
D. The Future of OTT Traffic and Fraud Prevention
1. Fraud Control in a World where Virtual Partners Multiply
E. The Fraud Threat to MVNOs
1. Why Nine Hundred Mobile Service Resellers are at Risk
2. Where MVNOs are Failing
Perspective: How MVNOs Should Protect Themselves from Fraud
— Colin Yates, Yates Fraud Consulting
Chapter 8. Mobile Data Abuse, FAS & Mobile Money Fraud:
Threats & Solutions — 11 pages
A. Mobile Data Plan Abuse
1. Data Plans Open a New Threat
Perspective: The Value of DPI in Stopping Mobile Broadband
Data Abuse — Dror Eshet, FraudView Product Manager, cVidya
2. Telecom Deep Packet Inspection is a Boon to Home & Enterprise Security
B. False Answer Supervision (FAS) Fraud
1. False Data Supervision: How the Fraud is Done
2. How an Anti-FAS Solution Detects the Fraud
3. Who Commits FAS Fraud?
4. Hard to Detect FAS Fraud Using FMS Thresholding
C. Mobile Banking & Credit Checking in the Unbanked World
1. The Mobile Opportunity at Unbanked Countries of World
2. The M-Pesa Success Story in Kenya
3. How the M-PESA Service Works
Chapter 9. Operator Strategies & Recommendations — 21 pages
A. Sustaining the Fraud Program
1. Fraud is a Wind that Allows Blows
2. Tips for Communicating the Value of Fraud Management
B. Build vs. Buy Strategies
1. Buy vs. Build: The Case for Building Your Own
2. In-House Projects: the Illusion of Control
3. Can Your In-House Application Stay State-of-the-Art?
4. Large Scale vs. Small Self-Contained Areas
5. Why a Large Wholesaler Builds its Fraud Solution In-House
C. The Operator and Solution Vendor Relationship
1. Vendor/Customer Relationships: Lots of Give and Take
2. Setting Clear Requirements
3. Setting a Realistic Budget and Timelines
4. Be on the Lookout for Points of Confusion
Perspective: Delivering Great Customer Service for
Software — David West, VP Sales, Equinox Information Systems
5. Be Quick to Work through a Tough Issue
6. Be Willing to Compromise
D. Big Data and Fraud Management
1. Big Data: Impact on Fraud and Other Telecom Analytics
2. Big Data: The Fourth V
3. Big Data Finds the Fraud Outliers in Many Data Sources
4. The Legal Advantages of All-Data vs. Sampling in Fraud Management
5. The Power of Hadoop and MapReduce
6. Advanced Analytics in the Fraud Management Business
7. The Power of Analytics in Searching the Outliers of Data
E. Should You Build an In-House Analytics System?
1. Is Building In-House Analytics Possible?
2. Getting Internal Support for Build-Your-Own Analytics
F. Managed Services
1. Outsourcing Fraud Management
Flexible Engagement Models in Managed Services
— Ashwin Chalapathy, Global Head of Consulting, Subex
G. The Vital Role of Consultants
1. The Heightened Role of External Consultants in Fraud Management
2. The Consultant Role as Objective Assessor of Risks
3. Assessing a Carrier Department in Readiness
4. Profiling an Organization: Risks and Anti-Fraud Capabilities
5. Putting an Expert Mind to Bear on Fraud Problems
Chapter 10. The Fraud Management Solutions — 19 pages
Market & Forecasts
A. Research Objectives & Methodology
1. Research Objective
2. Research Methodology
3. Method of Forecasting and Estimating Market Size
B. Market Analysis & Forecasts
1. The Telecom Fraud Management Solutions Market: Big Picture
2. International Revenue Share Fraud & Premium Rate Fraud Solutions
3. Bypass Solutions
4. Credit/ID Verification & Subscription Fraud
5. Other Fraud Solutions
6. Why a Shakeup in B/OSS Software is Looming
7. The Build for Change Revolution
8. Building for Change in Fraud Management Software
Chapter 11. Vendor Profiles — 56 pages
A. Araxxe
B. cVidya
C. Equinox Information Systems
D. FRS Labs
E. IPsoft
F. LATRO Services
G. Neural Technologies
H. SIGOS
I. Subex
J. TransNexus
k. WeDo Technologies